6.24 A pnp transistor modeled with the circuit in Fig. 6.11 (b) is connected with its base at ground, collector at –2.0 V, and a 1-mA current is injected into its emitter. If the transistor is said to have β=10,what are its base and collector currents? In which direction do they flow? If I S =10 −15 A, what voltage results at the emitter?What does the collector current become if a transistor with β=1000 is substituted? (Note: The fact that the collector current changes by less than 10% for a large change in β illustrates that this is a good way to establish a specific collector current.)

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